Short-term effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on gingivitis
42 healthy adults with moderate gingival inflammation were recruited into a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised study.
The aim was to assess the dose-effects of a probiotic chewing gum containing 2 x 10^8 CFU of Lactobacillus reuteri Prodentis (ATCC 55730 + ATCC PTA 5289). Group A/P (n=13) received one active and one placebo chewing gum daily, group A/A received 2 active chewing gums daily and group P/P received 2 placebo chewing gums daily. Study treatment was administered for 2 weeks. The degree of inflammation was assessed both as Bleeding on Probing (BOP) and volume of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). The GCF was also assessed for concentration of the inflammatory mediators IL-1, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10. All assessments were carried out on day 0 before treatment, and after 1 and 2 weeks. Follow-up assessment was made at 4 weeks (i.e. 2 weeks after treatment was stopped).
The BOP was improved and the GCF volume was decreased in all study groups, but the results were statistically significant only in the two groups (A/P and A/A) receiving Lactobacillus reuteri Prodentis. IL-6 and IL- 10 remained unaffected during the 2-week treatment period in all groups. However, in the group receving 2 active chewing gums per day, TNF-α and IL-8 decreased significantly and at 4-week follow up, IL-6 was also significantly decreased.
Conclusion: The study provides the first indication of a significant dose-dependent effect of Lactobacillus reuteri Prodentis on the oral immune response and the results support previous beneficial clinical results on gingival health.